History and evolution of the video camera
Video cameras are a relatively new invention, as they have only been around for a few decades, but they are evolving quickly. The earliest days of video cameras saw huge machines mounted on wheeled pedestals and rolled around television studios. But eventually, the television industry started to make their cameras more mobile, and that led to a consumer video camera that changed the way we see the world. From tape to digital content, video cameras are there to capture historic moments and protect people from crime. The Internet has had a hand in making video surveillance more accessible to homeowners, and the video camera industry just keeps on changing.
Television Video Cameras
The first video cameras to capture color images appeared in television studios in the late 1950s. The original video camera designs utilized vacuum tubes that could get extremely hot over time. As the technology advanced, the tubes started to get smaller and smaller, which allowed the cameras to get smaller. Eventually, the tubes in video cameras were replaced with solid-state components and the television video cameras became extremely portable. Thanks to these innovations, we are now able to see live news as it happens and capture important images on video for future generations to enjoy.
The earliest portable video cameras had to be connected to a tape machine in order to work. Even though this limited just how far the cameras could go, it still sparked a tremendous amount of interest among the consumer markets. In the late 1970s, the battle between the VHS and Betamax tape formats was in high gear and video cameras were developed to assist in getting each format accepted as the default format. In 1982, Sony successfully released the first Betamax camera for news organizations and ushered in the age of portable video camcorders. In 1983, Sony refined its Betamax camera for the consumer market and the device took off in sales. By 1985, Panasonic had released its VHS camcorder, and there were other formats such as Video8 and U-Matic. Eventually, the Betamax format was dropped in lieu of VHS, and videotape camcorders were soon appearing in homes all over the world.
Digital Video Cameras
Sony was also the first to release an all-digital video camera when it released its D1 camera in 1986. But the video format for the D1 was uncompressed, which meant that it was limited as to how much video it could actually record onto a single tape. In 1993, a company called Ampex released the first compressed digital video camera called the DCT, which allowed hours of video recording to be done on one tape. The breakthrough in compressed digital video technology opened a floodgate of products and innovations by Sony, Panasonic, and a long list of other technology companies. The video cameras were getting smaller, but the picture quality was improving dramatically thanks to the digital technology.
A huge breakthrough in video camera technology occurred in 2000 when Sony developed a format that supported high-definition video recording. In 2003, a mini-tape format was created that helped to create an even higher-definition picture.
No More Tape
In 2003, Sony revolutionized the video camera industry by releasing the very first tapeless digital recorder. At first, the Sony XDCAM was extremely expensive and sales were very slow. But by 2006, Sony, Panasonic, and other technology manufacturers had developed tapeless formats that were affordable and available to everyone.
3D and More
Sony and Panasonic had kicked down the door to tapeless digital video, and the technology was soon being added to smartphones and other mobile computing devices. The first webcam was introduced in 1991, but the tapeless revolution of 2006 allowed digital cameras to be put on devices as small as credit cards. In 2010, the very first 3D video cameras were introduced, and the technology was soon introduced on smartphones as well. The next generation of video camera technology is called 4K Ultra HD, and it is expected to offer clarity and editing options that have never been seen before.
Wireless Internet technology has been married with digital video cameras to create video surveillance cameras that could be monitored through any standard Internet browser. Closed-circuit television cameras have been around since 1942, and they have evolved into high-definition cameras that are capable of capturing clear images at daytime or nighttime and in any kind of weather.
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- Detecting Human Actions in Surveillance Videos (PDF)
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